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┌tgefi­ gŠ­askjal: Lei­beiningar
Skjaln˙mer: RklÝn-309
┌tg.dags.: 03/26/2018
┌tgßfa: 3.0 Glukagon

    Samheiti: Gl˙kagon, P-Glukagon, Glucagon.

Hluti af GUT-hormone panel hjß Hammersmith! Sjß skjal um Gut-hormon
Hide details for Sřnataka, geymsla og sřnasending Sřnataka, geymsla og sřnasending
Undirb˙ningur sj˙klings: Sj˙klingur ver­ur a­ hafa fasta­ frß kl 22 kv÷ldi­ fyrir sřnat÷ku.

Ger­ sřnis: EDTA-plasma.
Sřni teki­ Ý 4 ═SKĂLD gl÷s me­ fjˇlublßum tappa ßn gels (sv÷rt mi­ja) ═SKĂLD . Litakˇ­i samkvŠmt Greiner
Sett strax Ý kŠlikubb og fari­ me­ STRAX Ý kŠliskilvindu.

Magn: 3 mL
Geymsla sřnis: Plasma­ fryst strax. Ver­ur a­ vera komi­ Ý frysti innan 30 mÝn˙tna frß blˇ­t÷ku!
Sřnasending: ŮurrÝssending til ˙tlanda.
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Charing Cross Hospital
Fulham Palace Road
London W6 8RF
020 3311 1234

Email: paul.bech2@imperial.nhs.uk Senda helst DHL slˇ­ ß ■etta email ■egar sending fer ß sta­

Fax:+44 (0)20 3311 1443
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Preferred Sample Type
Gut Hormones (glucagon, gastrin, VIP, somatastatin, pancreatic polypeptide)

Suitable Specimen Types Special Collection Procedures Apply
10 mL

Specimen Transport
Send frozen.

Sample Processing in Laboratory
A.S.A.P to lab on ice. Sample must be seperated and frozen within 15 min of venepuncture.

Sample Preparation
Suggest collect blood into 2 special tubes for safety. Place on ice and transfer to laboratory. Discard visibly haemolysed specimens.

At Laboratory: Separate plasma in refrigerated centrifuge and freeze plasma within 15 minutes of venepuncture.

Send frozen sample.

ollect blood in EDTA tubes (2-3) on ice, spin and freeze immediately. Send frozen

Turnaround Time
14 days

Sample Stability
Freeze plasma at -20 oC within 15 min of venepuncture
Gut Hormones (glucagon, gastrin, VIP, somatastatin, pancreatic polypeptide)

General Information

A gut hormone screen is used for the diagnosis of a variety of endocrine tumours of the pancreas, ganglioneuromas, gastrinomas or G-cell hyperplasia. Analysis includes gastrin, VIP, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide, and glucagon.

The gastrin test is usually requested to help detect high levels of gastrin and stomach acid. It is used to help diagnose gastrin-producing tumours called gastrinomas, Zollinger-Ellison (ZE) syndrome, and hyperplasia of G-cells, specialised cells in the stomach that produce gastrin. It may be measured to screen for the presence of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN) It may be used if a person has abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and recurrent peptic ulcers. A gastrin test may also be requested to look for recurrence of disease following surgical removal of a gastrinoma.

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) measurement is required for diagnosis of pancreatic tumour or a ganglioneuroma which secretes VIP. Administration of VIP to animals causes hyperglycaemia, inhibition of gastric acid, secretion of pancreatic bicarbonate and of small intestinal juice, and a lowering of systemic blood pressure with skin flush. These features are seen in patients with a tumour of this type which is secreting VIP.

Glucagon is measured for preoperative diagnosis of a glucagon-producing tumour of the pancreas in patients with diabetes and a characteristic skin rash (necrolytic migratory erythema).

Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) production is most commonly associated with tumours producing vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and with carcinoid syndrome and, less commonly, with insulinomas and gastrinomas.

When secreted by endocrine tumours, somatostatin appears to produce symptoms similar to those seen on pharmacological administration, i.e. steatorrhoea, diabetes mellitus and gall stones.

Patient Preparation

Patient should be fasted overnight.

Patients should have stopped taking PPIs for 14 days and Hydrogen recptor antagonist for 72 hrs prior to blood sample being taken.


Analysis includes gastrin, VIP, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide, and glucagon. Neurotensin was previously offered as part of the gut hormone tumour service. This has since been withdrawn because it has been found to offer little diagnostic value over chromogranin A and B in neuroendocrine tumours. Neurotensin can however be requested separately in the diagnosis of fibrolamellar hepatic carcinoma. A new gut hormone called cocaine-and amphetamine related transcript (CART) will be available by the end of 2008 as part of the gut hormone profile.

To aid with gastrin analysis, please record on the SAS request form the patient's serum calcium and urea levels, a list of all drugs currently administered, details of any gastric surgery the patient has undergone, basal and stimulated acid output.

Contact Duty Biochemist (2506) prior to sample collection. This sample MUST BE collected on ice. If you require ice, please contact specimen reception 42252.

Reference Range

Provided by Reference Laboratory

Link to Send Away Laboratory

Frˇ­leikur: Glucagon is a peptide hormone. The pancreas releases glucagon when the concentration of glucose in the bloodstream falls too low. Glucagon causes the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose, which is released into the bloodstream.[5] High blood-glucose levels, on the other hand, stimulate the release of insulin. Abnormally elevated levels of glucagon may be caused by pancreatic tumors, such as glucagonoma, symptoms of which include necrolytic migratory erythema, reduced amino acids, and hyperglycemia.

If you have the following symptoms, your doctor may order a glucagon test:
  • mild diabetes
  • a skin rash known as necrolytic migratory erythema
  • unexplained weight loss
These symptoms commonly occur with pancreatic disorders that cause an overproduction of glucagon


Ingibj÷rg Loftsdˇttir
Sigr˙n H PÚtursdˇttir
Gu­mundur Sig■ˇrsson
KristÝn Sigurgeirsdˇttir



═sleifur Ëlafsson


Sigr˙n H PÚtursdˇttir

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